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鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

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發表於 2012-4-21 07:00:58 |訂閱他
鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

鐵達尼號3D版本問世,有關這艘「海上凡爾賽宮」的一切,又被大家從歷史的塵封中挖了出來。歷史資料顯示,當年鐵達尼號上共有8名華人,在船沉沒之後一共有6人倖存,但他們能夠活命,全都是利用非常不光彩、甚至可形容是卑劣的手段。

綜合大陸媒體報導,1912年4月10日,鐵達尼號緩緩的從英國南安普頓港口駛出,為人類海洋科技發展寫下新里程碑。這艘船上共有2223名乘客,其中有8名是華人,他們用大約56塊英鎊的價格,和電影裡頭男主角傑克(李奧納多飾演)一樣,買到了三等艙的船票。

經營鐵達尼號的白星公司,當時有登記所有乘客的姓名。這8個華人的名字分別為,Fang Lang、Lee Bing、Ali Lam、Chang Chip、Choong Foo、Lee Ling、Ling Lee和Len Lam。但由於時間長久,最後只能確認其中3人叫鐘捷、李炳、炳新。

電影《鐵達尼號》裡頭,住在三等艙的窮小子傑克,可以在各甲板自由進出,但現實情況不然,當時西方社會有嚴重的階級制度,想上甲板與「蘿斯」(凱特溫絲蕾飾演)飛翔,必須穿越1個樓梯通道,但通道有鐵門緊閉,出入受到管制。

報導指出,當時就算有錢人也不一定能買到頭等艙船票。因為裡頭全部都是名流貴族。至於三等艙內,則塞滿了來自愛爾蘭、瑞典、芬蘭、比利時等地的移民,他們全部都懷著遠大的「美國夢」,期盼自己能在新世界一夜致富。

歷史學家分析,這8名華人應該來自廣東、寧波、海南等沿海城市,因戰亂逃到香港求生,後來選擇到外國輪船上做事。現任香港海員工會副主席的黃國健分析,華人當時在船上都是低階人員,主要做的是燒煤、加油、掃地等工作,工資只有外國海員的5分之1。

唯一感到欣慰的,是三等艙環境並沒有電影刻畫的如此惡劣,裡頭有舒適的彈簧床墊,乾淨的枕頭毯子,暖爐、衣櫃應有盡有。食物雖然簡單,但品種豐富,有燕麥片、牛奶、熏鯡魚、牛排可供選擇。但裡頭只有2間洗澡的空間,原因是當時的窮人,認為經常洗澡會引發肺病。

如同電影裡的情結,鐵達尼號後來撞擊冰山,上千人開始與死神進行搏鬥,期盼能如願登上20艘如「諾亞方舟」的救生艇。

當時船上有個默契,讓女人與小孩先登船。但華人破壞了這樣的規矩,Choong Foo偷偷的爬上了坐了35位婦女的13號救生艇。坐在救生艇上的弗蘭克‧金史密斯太太事後在接受英國貿易部質詢時表示,「管理秩序的指揮官不敢開槍,因為怕傷到船上的人,Choong Foo用一種不太光彩的方式保住了自己的性命。」

除了Choong Foo之外,另外4位華人也如法炮製,分別爬上了不同的救生艇,然後一起看著鐵達尼號,以將近90度的角度,四分五裂的沉入海中。

凌晨2點20分,鐵達尼號完全沉沒,14號救生艇的指揮官羅威,選擇返航回頭救人,這也是當晚唯一1艘選擇救人的船隻。結果後來,他找到了1名趴在木板上的華人Fang Lang,他才是船難中最後獲救的人,而非女主角蘿斯。

獲救的Fang Lang,替華人挽回了些許顏面,因為他接替勞累過度的船員,用船槳把大家送回安全海域。指揮官羅威說,「當時的他,看起來像是個英雄!」

報導指出,除了Fang Lang外,其他幾位死裡逃生的華籍乘客飽受極大質疑。《紐約時報》撰文分析,中華文化存有重男輕女的觀念,因此他們認為救人的順序應該以男人優先。

由於當時美國實行排華法案(1882年生效,1943年廢止),包括Fang Lang在內的6名華籍乘客,最後還是沒進入美國,他們在卡法西亞號(Carpathia)上過了一夜,接著被帶到安內塔號(Annetta),展開下一趟的淘金之旅,也為華人寫下一段不光采的歷史。

瞭解更多~~~

電影對鐵達尼號真相的十大誤導

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

Titanic

In the early hours of April 15, 1912, in the North Atlantic Ocean, 2,225 men, women and children found themselves in a nightmare beyond their imaginations. Some 107 hours after Titanic’s first transatlantic crossing began, an iceberg terminated the voyage about 400 miles southeast of Nova Scotia. About 160 minutes later, the world’s wonder ship disappeared into the depths, with the loss of 1,513 lives — two-thirds of all on board。

1912年4月15日,北大西洋一艘郵輪上的2225名乘客遇上了驚天噩夢。這艘世界最大的皇家郵輪鐵達尼號處女航才107小時,就撞上了新斯科舍東南方四百米處的冰山,所有乘客必須撤離。160分鐘後,這艘巨輪沉沒海底,帶走了1513條人命——船上2/3的乘客遇難了。

Titanic’s brief life has engendered hundreds of books and songs, more than a dozen films, countless television documentaries, an opera, a Broadway musical, nearly a dozen Titanic organizations on at least three continents, official investigations and courtroom battles, and safety regulations that make sea travel among the safest transportation modes。

鐵達尼號的短暫一生締造了無數小說、歌曲、影視、紀錄片、歌劇、百老匯音樂劇,還有遍佈三大洲的各種機構、官方調查及法律糾紛。它的罹難也孕育了新的海上安全法規。

Yet there’s always something to learn about Titanic, her passengers and crew. Here are 10 things you may not know about the world’s most famous ocean liner。

不過,無論是鐵達尼號本身,還是它的船員和乘客,總有不曾解開的謎團。以下就為你揭開這艘世界巨輪不為人知的10個事實:

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

American

1. An American ship

一艘美國郵輪

Though Titanic flew the British ensign, Americans actually owned Titanic. In 1902, financier John Pierpont Morgan had purchased Britain’s Oceanic Steam Navigation Company, better known as the White Star Line, making it the premier company in his huge combine, the International Mercantile Marine Company。

雖然鐵達尼號上飄揚著英國國旗,但它卻是美國人的郵輪。1902年,金融家約翰·皮爾龐特·摩根收購了英國海運公司(即白星公司),合建成了首家IMM國際海運公司。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩


champagne

2. No champagne

沒有香檳命名儀式

The classic 1958 Titanic film, "A Night To Remember," begins with a woman breaking a bottle of champagne on Titanic’s bow as she names the vessel. No such event took place when Titanic was launched at the Belfast shipyards of Harland and Wolff, Ltd. on May 31, 1911. The White Star Line did not believe in the practice and none of its vessels were christened。

在1958年以鐵達尼號為主題的影片《銘記的夜晚》中,一位女士在船頭開了瓶香檳酒,並為這艘郵輪取名為“鐵達尼號”。現實中,鐵達尼號是1911年5月31日在貝爾法斯特的哈蘭德和沃爾夫船廠建成的。白星公司否認了影片中的場景,表示旗下沒有一艘船艦舉行過這樣的命名儀式。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

unique

3. Neither unique nor revolutionary

並非獨一無二、史無前例

While many believe there never was another ship like Titanic, there actually were two others. The White Star Line had envisioned a weekly transatlantic service, requiring three vessels. The resulting "Olympic class" consisted of three nearly identical sister ships: Olympic, entering service in October 1910; Titanic, April 1912; and Gigantic, later renamed Britannic, planned for 1915.

很多人都誤以為鐵達尼號是當時世界上最大最豪華的郵輪,其實不然。當時,白星公司計劃建造三艘大西洋航線郵輪。這三艘奧林匹克級的姊妹艦就是:1910年10月起航的“奧林匹克號”,1912年4月起航的“鐵達尼號”,以及1915年的“巨人號”(即“不列顛尼克號”)。

Nor was Titanic "revolutionary." Nearly every aspect of her design was a repeat of Olympic, which, in turn, incorporated features tested by earlier White Star ships. Titanic was unique in just one way: During her brief life, she was the world’s largest vessel, exceeding Olympic by about 1,000 tons。

鐵達尼號也絕非“史無前例”。它的整體設計幾乎完全模仿了奧林匹克號,並沿襲了白星公司以往船艦的風格。鐵達尼號唯一與眾不同的是:在那個年代,它是世界最大郵輪,比奧林匹克號還要重1000噸。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

contender

4. Never a contender

並非無與倫比

A persistent Titanic myth is that she was "out to break the transatlantic record." In September 1909, the Cunard Line’s Mauretania completed a round trip averaging more than 26 knots, a record that stood for 20 years. Titanic briefly attained a maximum speed of nearly 23 knots, traveling from Cherbourg to Queenstown。

人們一直以為,鐵達尼號會“打破大西洋航行傳奇記錄”。其實1909年9月,卡納德公司的毛利塔尼亞號時速早已達到26海里,20年來無出其右。而鐵達尼號從法國瑟堡到昆士敦最大時速也不過23海里。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

treasure

5. Not a treasure ship

並非藏寶無數

Despite a passenger list including titans of industry, wealthy families and even a movie actress, Titanic was not filled with priceless jewels. Philadelphia’s Eleanor Widener dropped her celebrated pearl necklace, insured for $100,000, into her pocketbook before boarding her lifeboat. First-class women retrieved their checked jewelry from the purser’s office as evacuation began. A "priceless" jeweled copy of "The Rubaiyat," the Omar Khayyam book of poems, had sold at a London auction for a mere $2,000 — less than half its asking price。

雖然鐵達尼號的乘客不乏工業巨亨、富家子弟、乃至電影明星,但船上並沒剩下多少無價之寶。費城的埃莉諾·威德納已為一條珍珠項鏈投保了10萬美金;船一失事,頭等艙女士們就從事務辦公室取回了自己的珠寶。唯一“價值連城”的是奧馬·海亞姆的《魯拜集》,倫敦拍賣會上卻只賣了2000美元——連競拍價一半都不到。

Cargo also was ordinary. The ship’s stowage plan shows the specie room contained only "opium parcels." The rest was typical commercial shipments ranging from shoes to William Carter’s 35-horsepower Renault sports car, oak beams and an early airplane engine。

船上的貨物也很普通。從儲物單上看,倉庫有些鴉片,其餘便是一般商品了:鞋子、威廉·卡特的35馬力雷諾跑車、橡木樑,還有老式飛機引擎。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩


gash

6. No 300-foot gash

裂縫沒有300英呎大

If the iceberg’s damage had been continuous over a 300-foot length, as depicted in many 1912 publications, the ship would have sunk in minutes. At the British inquiry into the disaster, naval architect Edward Wilding calculated that the damaged area totaled 12 square feet, extending intermittently along the starboard side。

如果冰山撞下的豁口真有當時報導的那麼大(300英呎),鐵達尼號幾分鐘就玩完了。在英方調查下,造船工程師愛德華·威丁計算出豁口總共12平方英呎,零星分佈在船舷邊上。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

locked

7. Locked below?

三等艙乘客被鎖在下面?

Every Titanic movie depicts third-class passengers trapped behind floor-to-ceiling gates. Careful examination of available plans of Olympic and Titanic reveals no such gates in passenger areas. U.S. immigration regulations required segregation of third class from first and second. On Titanic, waist-high gates separated classes. Stewards nearby prevented gate-jumping. Eventually, they left to help in the evacuation, leaving gates unguarded, explaining a surge of third-class passengers onto the boat deck after most lifeboats had left. One author plotted more than 20 paths from third-class areas to the boat deck。

幾乎每部鐵達尼號電影都展現了三等艙乘客被鎖困在下面的場景。後來,人們仔細檢查了奧林匹克號和鐵達尼號構造,發現乘客區根本沒有這種隔離門。鐵達尼號上只有齊腰高的隔離門,邊上有乘務員防止乘客隨便穿越。但大撤離時,門邊上沒人看守。救生艇騰出來後,大批三等艙乘客都湧到了甲板上。有作家甚至計算過,從三等艙到甲板,至少有20條通道吧。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

turn

8. One wrong turn

愚蠢的“左滿舵”命令

As Titanic’s grand staircase ascended to the boat deck, it divided into left and right halves. First-class male passengers who chose the left side were doomed; Second Officer Charles Lightoller strictly enforced the "women and children first" rule on the port side, allowing just one male passenger into a boat to help with rowing. Those who turned to the right at the top of the staircase had a chance to survive; First Officer William Murdoch enforced a policy of "women and children first, but men when there were no women."

鐵達尼號一直延伸到甲板的大樓梯將船分成了左右兩部分。失事後,頭等艙男乘客只能呆在左舷等死;二副查爾斯·耐特羅嚴肅表示“婦孺優先”,只留一名男乘客上救生艇搖船。而那些爬上右舷樓梯頂的乘客尚有一線生機;可是,大副威廉·默多克強硬表示:“婦孺優先,所有婦女全都上救生艇後,才有男人的份。”

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩

lifeboat

9. More boats?

多一點救生艇?

Despite certifying Titanic’s capacity as 3,547 passengers and crew, the British government determined the ship needed lifeboat space for 960.

雖然鐵達尼號能容納3547名乘客及船員,但英國政府規定的救生艇數量是960個。

Titanic actually carried boats for 1,178, exceeding requirements. Even if more boats had been installed, there would not have been time to launch them; Titanic’s last two boats floated off as the ship sank. Of the available 1,178 seats, 465 were sent away empty。

其實,鐵達尼號還超出限額,配備了1178艘救生艇。但就算救生艇再多,當時也沒有足夠時間全部用上。船沉後,還有兩隻救生艇就那樣漂走了。1178只救生艇,有465只放下後完全沒用上。

鐵達尼號解密:船上共8名華人 逃命時很不光彩


present

10. Titanic’s present and future

鐵達尼號的現狀和未來

Titanic lies 12,500 feet below the surface in a lightless, hostile environment. Strong undersea currents press strongly against the ship’s sides, damaging already-weakened areas. Perhaps within a generation, the ship’s upper portions largely will have disappeared. Eventually, only the inch-thick steel hull will remain。

現在,鐵達尼號正躺在12500英呎下的海底,周圍一片黑暗、兇險無常。劇烈的海底洋流衝擊著船身,腐蝕著已然破敗的殘骸。或許幾十年後,大部分現有殘骸都會消失殆盡,最後只剩下一點鋼片了吧。

More than 6,000 objects have been retrieved from Titanic’s debris field; no artifacts come from the ship’s interior. As decks collapse, what’s left of Titanic’s interior splendor will be sealed off forever。

人們從鐵達尼號殘骸裡找回了6000多件物品,但船內的裝飾卻蕩然無存。船體坍塌的剎那,它艙內的輝煌就已經被永遠封存了。

延伸閱讀:
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